People get to bring out their hidden talents. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. These approaches can effectively reduce the signal baud rate as well as the required bandwidth for optical and electrical devices. Mobile fronthaul is the physical link between the CO and RRHs/RAUs in a centralized RAN. It also expands, accelerates and facilitates its distribution, often with associated cost savings. Wavelength division multiplex passive optical network (WDM-PON) converging the divisions in the light-wave domain and wireless domain has become a promising solution to alleviate the issue of congested backhaul data traffic . Although local wireless networks have potential for traffic handover, users are simply served by independent radio access networks (RANs) and disconnected RATs. Laptopsb. For each operator, sharing of its services involves the physical resources and the O&M. Bit rates above 100 Gb s−1 have been attained by adopting spectrum-efficient modulation formats and digital coherent detection enabled by fibre–wireless convergence [28–30]. CA among various bands is arbitrary, handover between various cells is smooth, and coordination at cell-edge areas is seamless. Media Convergence Question on Quora – What is It? Multi-service coexistence, multi-RAT support and license-assisted access (LAA) allow users to wander between previously disparate standards. All-band radio spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GHz will be used to deliver wireless services with high capacity, high link speed and low latency. Photonics-aided coordination also improves the MMW transmission stability and mitigates ICI . There's so much customer data coming in that we even coined a whole industry, Big Data, to talk about it! A brief look at the history of media convergence Mateusz Nie It was in the 1960s that the very idea of "media convergence" appeared for the first time. on October 31, 2020 No Comments. Future 5G RANs will increase the requirement for backhaul capacity by at least 10 times considering the effective throughput for each user and multi-antenna technologies. In this case, the virtual BS from each RAU’s viewpoint is identical. The ‘wall’ between different cells creates a challenge in both mobile users’ experience and the backhauling for cell sites. Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music, video, photo via social networking and become media produce. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to … This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. Besides cost and management savings, this simplification leads to an important property that the propagation delay is determined only by the fronthaul length. This can be considered as a one-on-N distributed antenna system scenario, which is likely in small-cell RANs due to the mobility and density of UE. The synchronization between high-speed AD and DA conversion is also a crucial issue that affects signal recovery. Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. The objective ofincubators is to encourage economic growth In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. This is the 21st century, and media convergence … Mass Media refers to all forms of media that are open to and accessible by the public. The convergence originates from fibre–wireless integration to macro- and small cells with multi-layer centralization and resource sharing, and results in seamless coordination among cells and services with accurate synchronization in future mobile networks. On top of a centralized RAN, RoF provides high-level centralization and minimizes complexity distribution. The convergence over mobile fronthaul itself plays an important role in the universal convergence of RANs. The sharing in this level may include communications between operators inside the CO, which greatly reduces the core network traffic and improves the efficiency of common services supplied by multiple operators. Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. The independent backhauling for each antenna element is solved by the converged fibre–wireless links that conceive and maintain the amplitude and phase information of the wireless signal as they are during optical transmissions. Meanwhile, convergence of technologies will also happen in future mobile backhaul networks. The convergent networks will generate profound changes in RAN architecture, backhaul and fronthaul links, and the way we use frequency bands for future wireless communications. This is a promising improvement over traditional CPRI systems, where digital processing takes variable delays. Cells from different families coexist and are merged into an optimized continuous coverage distribution when needed. Home; Explore; Successfully reported this slideshow. In other words, RAU is a simplified version of RRH. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. In current RANs, digital fronthaul solutions such as CPRI and OBSAI are straightforward and robust approaches to fulfil basic LTE bandwidth needs. Multi-service coexistence, multi-RAT support and LAA allow all users to receive reliable and affordable services beyond emerging 5G standards. Technological convergence results in greater benefits from increased diversity in products and services in the telecommunication industry. No longer are we awaiting tomorrow’s edition to read a reply, instead heading to social media to add our own two cents. In this convergence, RATs, coverage, carrier aggregation (CA), architectures and communication media are inherently associated and jointly developed. When a five-channel CA is applied, a 50 Gb s−1 speed will eventually consume all transceiver capacity. A photonic amplitude-changing module or chip is required to change the intensity of the split optical signals. However, in all generations so far, the network coverage is still composed of almost isolated cells. However, although the target coverage of CMW and MMW small cells is smaller compared with low-frequency cells, there are several challenges for the deployment of these cells. benefits of media convergence. Assisted by MWP technologies, the converged design enables more efficient management for all the light sources, e.g. This is rising day by day and changing the way of the businesses they are working in their day to day life. A set of BBUs and their corresponding E/O transmitters are connected to the service resource-sharing port so as to carry the data, signals and their processing in cloud form [7,12]. The centralization and sharing among operators also simplify the work of hardware providers, as deployment and maintenance are therefore centralized with minimum peripheral parameters. Mobile backhaul is the physical link between the core network and BSs in a distributed architecture, as shown in figure 2a. Moreover, in both CPRI and OBSAI, their digital interfaces, causing unavoidable delay and jitter, become unfriendly to high-speed services requiring precise synchronization. This essay will discuss the importance of media convergence in the new media age. Third, CMW and MMW cells should have the function of providing flexible support for different service coverage areas, including both indoor and outdoor situations . The centralized radio access network (C-RAN) architecture has been proposed to extract the baseband signal processing functions from distributed BSs and collocate the baseband units (BBUs) into a pool for centralized signal processing and management, as shown in figure 2b . All-band coverage and different service tiers. One contribution of 14 to a discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’. These methods enable fast and low-loss optical processing over the fibre links to RAUs/RRHs [26,27]. Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. A solid fronthaul design is the key approach to build efficient pipes between BBUs and users in terms of coverage, throughput, bandwidths, multi-service, quality, cost and compatibility with long-term convergence. The reconfiguration manipulated by the upper layers maintains the desired connections between BBUs and RAUs. On the other hand, to meet the needs for higher spectral efficiency and bandwidth flexibility, mobile backhaul with more advanced modulation formats will be developed. Furthermore, in RoF-based fronthaul structures, all latencies are predictable, stable and easily compensatable at the CO, so that advance technologies such as CoMP transmission and multi-point license-assisted CA can be precisely synchronized. The benefit of social media convergence. and L.C. When the Internet of things and media convergence interacted，social media expresses their competitive characteristics. With the advancement from 3G to 4G, RANs reach a capacity of 1–10 Gb s−1 per cell . Millimeter-wave access and backhauling: the solution to the exponential data traffic increase in 5G mobile communications systems? The authors would like to thank the members of Georgia Tech Fiber-Wireless Integration and Networking (FiWIN) Research Center for their contributions and Dr Steven McLaughlin, the school chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Georgia Institute of Technology, for encouragement and support. Two case stud. In essence, this is a ‘no-more-cells’ architecture in which carrier aggregation among multiple frequency bands can be easily achieved with seamless handover between cells. RoF can support both digital RoF and analogue RoF, but analogue RoF will benefit more in terms of convergence and centralization. If people want to cook some special and delicious foods, no matter whether this is their first time to cook them or not, they will check the recipes from some cooking apps to help them cook that. Explain the rationale to enter a mature market with asuccessful and established brand, the GustBuster®., what do you mean when we say culture is diverse, elore each number.d 1. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 5. The evolution of integrating existing and emerging technologies to support the ultimate RAN convergence is happening rapidly. Another benefit is that media convergence allows sources to reach a broader audience with the same media message presented across different platforms to fit the needs of each consumer. It educates people. Operators can effectively manage the communications between services from the upper layers inside the CO so that the traffic through the SGWs can be eliminated. Discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’ organised and edited by Andrew Ellis, David Payne and David Saad. (Online version in colour.). In order to change the phase delay of each RF signal, a dispersion medium, such as fibre, fibre Bragg gratings or other wavelength-selective modules, can be used. By converging traditional low-frequency radio and newly deployed high-frequency radio, RANs can provide an all-band access pipe for the highest channel capacity. Once a country which had fifty major media companies in 1983, America now, has only nine important multinational media conglomerates, some of which include Walt Disney, Time Warner, Comcast, News Corp., CBS and Viacom. The short answer is data. 60 GHz) provides very high-throughput coverage for minor-mobility indoor users. The interference between cells that limits the system capacity can hardly be managed by isolated BSs. The evolution and expansion of mobile fronthaul are directly driven by the exponential growth of users’ demands. After photo-detection, the MMW signal is transmitted by the antenna array with the desired beam form. Figure 5. Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN. Meaning of convergence Convergence comes from the prefix con-, meaning together, and the verb verge, which … Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. What, if anything, can governments do toencourage manufacturing at home?, 2. the traditional distributed thermal control at each ONU can be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the OLT. … Dr.Ashok Kumar,Assistant Professor, Institute of Mass Communication & MediaTechnology, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Convergence & Multi Media : Changing trends in Indian Media 2. In converged RANs, as the number of cells increases and the average cell size becomes smaller, a huge amount of fronthaul links are needed to distribute high-density, high-frequency, high-performance, but light-weight access units. Easy. Figure 3. By centralizing all DSP functions into BBU, downstream RF signals are transmitted as analogue signals, where multiple bands of multiple services can be multiplexed in the frequency domain by using band mapping and CA techniques . All of the above1. Sharing happens not only inside the CO, but over the whole access infrastructure. All baseband functions and most RF signalling are realized in a CO, where resources are shared among all fronthaul links even if the links have various structures and serve different types of cells. Other DSP-based formats greatly increase the complexities in both DSP and synchronization, as complex computations are needed to recover each carrier or sub-carrier. Physical resources including laser sources, radio sources and peripheral equipment can be shared among different operators that provide multiple services [10,11]. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music , video , photo via social networking and become media produce. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 2. Mobile fronthaul supports new-style small cells and as well inherits legacy cells, including macrocells from 4G and small cells from wireless local area networks (WLANs). It will be decided on the merits of three objective aspects: RAN architecture, backhaul and fronthaul links, and frequency bands for future mobile networks. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. More and more mobile fronthaul links will coexist with traditional mobile backhaul and midhaul as convergence occurs in RANs. In this paper, we have discussed and reviewed the benefits of the convergence of fibre-optic-based optical access networks with RANs beyond the current bandwidth crunch. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Media convergence shifted all of the previous media products and services into online versions which boosted some companies into success and ended others (Wilson, 2010). Has Senz turned its back on regional and nationalgovernments by manufacturing in China? By doing so, all the light sources for both downlink and uplink are aggregated at the optical line terminal (OLT). Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. Historically, the transition to new mobile technologies has resulted in the need for a fourfold to fivefold increase in backhaul capacity. Two case stud . The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through … To reach high spectral efficiency, advanced MMW technologies are desired for signalling, and this is realized by the supporting fibre–wireless convergence. Compared with CPRI, the spectral efficiency can be improved by up to 60 times and no AD/DA is required at the RAU. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. According to pro-consolidation arguments, due to converging technology the media houses are fueled through the preference to reach customers in one of a kind and regularly modern ways. The authors are grateful for the support of a special infrastructure grant from Georgia Research Alliance and an education fund from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Georgia Tech. The advert of ICTs led to the innovation of technological convergence. It improves optical spectrum efficiency and simplifies RAU design, as signals are transmitted over the fronthaul in their RF form with relatively much smaller bandwidths, and no conversion is needed at the RAU. (Online version in colour. In addition, local small cells are connected by mobile midhaul and supported by BSs . People get the latest news in a very short time. Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. A multi-structure mobile fronthaul provides system resilience, flexibility and increased overall bandwidth capacity. Finally, the high carrier frequencies, and especially the ultra-wide bandwidths of MMW, have high requirements on hardware for signal generation and distribution. Different approaches for the realization of a high-speed fibre–wireless integration system as mobile backhaul/fronthaul, including optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) combined with MIMO reception [31,32], advanced multi-level modulation, multi-carrier modulation , antenna polarization multiplexing [33,34], MMW CoMP transmissions [35,36] and multi-band multiplexing, have been proposed . With the use of the same media platforms, they now have to work together and are becoming more and more one entity. Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work! Media convergence is important because it can enrich media content, increase media authenticity and produce better journalism (Zhang, 2008). Currently, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) , carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation  and sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM)  have been deeply investigated. Real-time dual-band wireless videos in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system, Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks, OFDM for next-generation optical access networks, 11×5×9.3 Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection, Experimental demonstration of a 10 Gb/s subcarrier multiplexed WDM PON, Enhanced intercell interference coordination challenges in heterogeneous networks, Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results, Radio-over-fiber access architecture for integrated broadband wireless services, Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators. (Online version in colour. With technological convergence, the electronic transmissio… So have similar digital signal processing (DSP)-based modulation formats such as generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) and filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) for high spectral efficiency. (Online version in colour.). At the RAU, the RF access equipment consisting of broadband O/E and E/O converters and RF components is shared by multiple operators and/or services from the same CO. Which of the following is an Example of Technology?a. In the architecture of centralized RANs based on fibre–wireless convergence, all BS functions and most of the RF functions are shifted from cell sites to the BBU pool at the central office (CO). Media convergence is a theory in communications where every mass medium eventually merges to the point where they become one medium due to the advent of new communication technologies. Technology. Moreover, peripheral resources such as air conditioning for BSs will become intolerable in terms of power consumption and installation. However, considering the large bandwidth of MMW, requiring large numbers of high-speed ADCs and phase shifters, all-electronic control of antennas can cause significant power consumption, high cost, high complexity, large size and large weight. Similarly, consumers can access multiple forms of media content on a single device whenever they choose, often for free. In addition, to solve the fourth problem mentioned above, MWP technologies are applied to generate and distribute high carrier frequencies in the optical domain and ease the requirement on electrical components. Nevertheless, media convergence is really good and is something that has contributed immensely to the media coverage and to the growth and development of our society at large. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Technological convergence simplifies the production of media content. Published by the Royal Society. Figure 1. Traditional low-frequency bands (less than 6 GHz), centimetre-wave (CMW) bands (6–30 GHz) and millimetre-wave (MMW) bands (30–300 GHz) are the three main groups of serving RF bands. In addition, RoF facilitates the generation and distribution of high-frequency signals in optical approaches, as high-frequency signalling burdens fronthaul systems much more than low-frequency microwave signals . Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. For each service from an operator, the sharing inside the BBU pool may happen in layers 1–3 and also O&M. The benefits of exploiting MMW for fronthaul transmissions include high capability of wireless data transmission, simple deployment and adaptive environmental suitability, as MMW bands provide multi-gigahertz available bandwidth without the burden of distant cable wiring. On the other hand, the output from one BBU transmitter can be shared by multiple RAUs. (Online version in colour.). A phase antenna array is designed for this adaptive beam forming in different propagation conditions, including single-user and multi-user, line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS, static and mobile users. Using IP technology that connects all telecommunication services with a single network, companies can add services to their previous ones, without new investments in infrastructure. Furthermore, advanced technologies such as coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmissions and multi-point CA rely heavily on fronthaul characteristics, which introduce stringent synchronization and system stability requirements on mobile fronthaul designs . It supports both low-frequency bands and high-frequency bands. But with social media, they’re both working on things like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to get their messages out. The centralized BBU and distributed remote radio heads (RRHs) are connected by digital fibre-optic links via standardized digital RF interfaces, such as common public radio interface (CPRI) and open base station architecture initiative (OBSAI) [8,9]. In CPRI, a 20 MHz LTE signal, as an example, takes up to 10 Gb s−1 fronthaul rate. Media convergence is putting that book put onto your Kindle as another vehicle for content delivery, made into a movie, put on Audible, and even made into a video game for people to play with the story’s characters. Data allows us to make better predictions and creates new models of customer behavior f… As the cell size gets reduced and the number increases, it will be too expensive to build, upgrade and operate the network, as each cell needs its own BS at the cell site. RoF as the core technique to realize fronthaul convergence can solve most of the problems that a distributed digital system may incur. Through media showcase their talents such as comedy, acting and singing.4. …, China rather than TheNetherlands. Each RAU is virtually connected to all the BBUs in different pools. This trend is expected to continue into the 5G era in 2020 in the roadmap of 3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) . source ：convergence. Therefore, it is necessary to centralize and thus eliminate the BS cost, and consequently allow multiple heterogeneous services to share them . Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. 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